Careful investigation by environmental activists has uncovered the identities of three long-term police infiltrators, one of whom advocated violence. Police constable (PC) Mark Kennedy, known in Nottingham activist circles as “Mark Stone” was publicly exposed on the Indymedia activists’ news website in late October, a fact recorded in PN 2528. (The first report in a British print publication.) Kennedy had been undercover in the environmentalist movement from 2004. In late 2009 he resigned from the police, continuing undercover work in the private sector, indirectly for the energy company E.ON.
Two other police officers have been exposed by activists: “Marco Jacobs” also known as “Mark Jacobs”, active in Brighton in 2004 and subsequently in the Cardiff Anarchist Network (which he disrupted); and “Lynn Watson” whose point of entry into activism appears to have been the Trident Ploughshares direct action network and the Aldermaston Women’s Peace Camp in 2003-2004. “Watson” then moved to Leeds and became involved in activist circles there. All three officers became heavily involved in Climate Camp.
According to a summary of their activities posted on the Sheffield Indymedia site, “Marco Jacobs” fell under suspicion, and was excluded from sensitive information. However, it is said, the Climate Camp “land group”, which chooses the camp locations, contained both Mark Kennedy and “Lynn Watson”. A fourth infiltrator, PC Jim Boyling (“Jim Sutton”), was exposed in the Guardian in January by his former partner, whom Boyling met while infiltrating the Reclaim The Streets direct action group between 1995 and 2000.
All four officers had sexual relationships with activists while undercover, contravening police guidelines. Kennedy’s exposure began when a passport with his real name was found by his long-term activist girlfriend. When confronted by activists, he confessed, and confirmed that “Lynn Watson” was also a police infiltrator.
“Marco Jacobs” was exposed after the Cardiff Anarchist Network passed their suspicions on to the Guardian newspaper, who confirmed his identity as a police officer. This almost certainly came from the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO). ACPO is in charge of the National Public Order Intelligence Unit (NPOIU), which employed all four police officers.
According to the Indymedia account assembled by activists from around Britain and Ireland, “Marco Jacobs” was said to be “very reluctant” to become involved in direct action or confrontation with the police.
In contrast, Mark Kennedy appears to have taken part in street actions, thus earning trust. Kennedy first surfaced as an enthusiastic participant in May Day street confrontations in Ireland in 2004. Kennedy was beaten by police at the 2006 Climate Camp, resulting in two broken fingers – it is claimed he provoked his fellow officers (perhaps to help establish his credentials).
Kennedy/“Stone” is also said to have encouraged campaigners against the far-right English Defence League (EDL) to attack EDL coaches on the outskirts of Bradford in 2010 (rather than confronting them in the city centre).