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Footnotes for The Nonviolent Russian Revolution and The Grassroots Working-Class Revolution that Lenin Crushed

The full references for the Peace News double-pamphlet 1917: The Nonviolent Russian Revolution / 1917: The Grassroots Working-Class Revolution that Lenin Crushed

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These are the footnotes for the double pamphlet written by PN editor Milan Rai in October 2017 to mark the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution.

Many of these references can be verified online - sometimes whole texts have been scanned and placed online. In other cases, a search for the quoted text will bring up the page in the book referred to.

 

Footnotes for 1917: The Nonviolent Russian Revolution 

1 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p101.

2 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p117.

3 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p101.

4 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p310.

5 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p101.

6 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p315.

7 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p313.

8 Peter Ackerman and Jack DuVall, A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, New York/Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000, pp387-391.

9 Stephen Zunes, 'The Iranian Revolution (1977-1979)', April 2009, on the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict website.

10 Mohsen Sazegara and Maria J Stephan, 'Iran's Islamic Revolution and Nonviolent Struggle', in Maria J Stephan ed, Civilian Jihad: Nonviolent Struggle, Democratization and Governance in the Middle East, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p197.

11 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p310.

12 Murray Bookchin, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era, Volume Three, London: Continuum, 2004, pp149-150.

13 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p308.

14 Trotsky's History of the Russian Revolution was originally published in 1930, and first published in English in 1932. It has most recently been published by Penguin Classics (February 2017) and Haymarket Books (2008). The section quoted is on pp77-78 of the Haymarket 2008 edition. It can also be found online at the Marxists Internet Archive.

15 Robert Wilton, The Times, 16 March 1917 [Gregorian calendar], p12; and Robert Wilton, Russia's Agony, London: Arnold, 1918, pp109-111; both excerpts in Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico 2001, pp17-18.

16 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p313.

17 Cited in Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico 2001, p29.

18 This account of the Kornilov affair is based on Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp114-150.

19 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp116-117.

20 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p139.

21 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p142.

22 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p148.

23 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p148.

24 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p299.

25 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p226.

26 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p227.

27 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p232.

28 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p237.

29 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p234.

30 Paul Avrich, The Russian Anarchists, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971, p197. Anarchist Emma Goldman wrote at length of meeting Shatov ('Shatoff') in Russia after the revolution, and hearing both his apologetics for the regime and criticisms of him by persecuted Russian anarchists. Earlier in her autobiography, she gave a snapshot account of his admirable work in the US. Emma Goldman, Living My Life: Volume 2, London: Pluto Press, 1988, pp728-735, 595-596.

31 Jonathan D Smele, Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926, London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, p96.

32 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp240, 241.

33 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p241.

34 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp241-242.

35 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p244.

36 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p245.

37 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp245-246.

38 Cited in Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p247.

39 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p250.

40 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp253-254.

41 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p254.

42 Nikolai Nikolaevich Sukhanov and Joel Carmichael, The Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by N.N. Sukhanov, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984, p615.

43 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p254.

44 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp251-252.

45 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p182.

46 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p265.

47 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p268.

48 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp269-270.

49 Nikolai Nikolaevich Sukhanov and Joel Carmichael, The Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by N.N. Sukhanov, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984, p 620.

50 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p272.

51 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, pp276-277, 280, 287.

52 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p282.

53 John Reed, Ten Days that Shook the World, New York: Boni & Liveright, 1919, p83.

54 Alfred William Fortescue Knox, With the Russian Army, 1914-1917: Being chiefly extracts from the diary of a military attaché, New York: EP Dutton and Company, 1921, p709.

55 Nikolai Nikolaevich Sukhanov and Joel Carmichael, The Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by N.N. Sukhanov, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984, p639.

56 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p283.

57 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p289.

58 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p284.

59 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p289.

60 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p289.

61 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p299.

62 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press, 1984, p351.

63 Alfred William Fortescue Knox, With the Russian Army, 1914-1917: Being chiefly extracts from the diary of a military attaché, New York: EP Dutton and Company, 1921, pp710, 711n.

64 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p300.

65 John Reed, Ten Days that Shook the World, New York: Boni & Liveright, 1919, pp99, 101.

66 Alfred William Fortescue Knox, With the Russian Army, 1914-1917: Being chiefly extracts from the diary of a military attaché, New York: EP Dutton and Company, 1921, p713.

67 John Reed, Ten Days that Shook the World, New York: Boni & Liveright, 1919, p337n.

68 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p302.

69 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p303.

70 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p278.

 

Footnotes for 1917: The Grassroots Working-Class Revolution that Lenin Crushed 

1 Noam Chomsky, 'The Soviet Union versus Socialism', Our Generation, no 17:2, p50.

2 Noam Chomsky, On Power and Ideology: The Managua Lectures, Boston: South End Press, 1987, p53. This book was republished by Haymarket Books in 2015.

3 David Moon, 'Peasants and Agriculture', in Dominic Lieven ed, The Cambridge History of Russia: Vol II Imperial Russia, 1689-1917, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p374

4 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p35.

5 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p40.

6 Cited in Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico, 2001, p108.

7 Cited in Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico, 2001, p109.

8 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p52.

9 Murray Bookchin, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era, Volume Three, London: Continuum, 2004, pp160-163.

10 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p325.

11 Murray Bookchin, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era, Volume Three, London: Continuum, 2004, p164, pp181-182.

12 Murray Bookchin, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era, Volume Three, London: Continuum, 2004, p168.

13 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p330.

14 Murray Bookchin, The Third Revolution: Popular Movements in the Revolutionary Era, Volume Three, London: Continuum, 2004, p165.

15 Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, London: Pimlico, 1996, p359.

16 Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico, 2001, p109.

17 Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico, 2001, pp109-110.

18 Cited in Harvey Pitcher, Witnesses of the Russian Revolution, London: Pimlico, 2001, p110.

19 Lenin, 'Socialism and Anarchism', Novaya Zhizn, 24 November 1905. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1965, Moscow, Volume 10, pages 71-74, via Marxists Internet Archive.

20 Lenin, 'The Socialist Party and Non-Party Revolutionism', Novaya Zhizn, 26 November and 2 December 1905, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 10, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965, pp75-82, via Marxists Internet Archive.

21 Lenin, Non-Party Workers' Organisations and the Anarcho-Syndicalist Trend Among the Proletariat, draft resolution for the fifth congress of the RSDLP (1907), via Marxists Internet Archive.

22 Lenin, 'The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution' [The April Theses], Pravda, 7 April 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1964, Moscow, Volume 24, pp. 19-26, via Marxists Internet Archive.

23 Alexander Rabinowitch, Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising, Bloomington: Indianapolis University Press, republished in 1991, p122.

24 Alexander Rabinowitch, Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising, Bloomington: Indianapolis University Press, republished in 1991.

25 Lenin, The Political Situation, written on 10 July 1917, published in Proletarskoye Dyelo on 20 July 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 25, pp178-180, via Marxists Internet Archive.

26 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd, London: Pluto, 2017 new ed, p59.

27 Lenin, On Compromises, written 1-3 September 1917, published in Rabochy Put, 6 September 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 25, pp309-314, via Marxists Internet Archive.

28 Lenin, 'One of the Fundamental Questions of the Revolution', Rabochy Put, 14 September 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 25, pages 370-377, via Marxists Internet Archive.

29 Lenin, 'The Bolsheviks must assume power', letter to Bolshevik central committee, and city Bolshevik committees in Petrograd and Moscow, written 12-14 September 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, Moscow, Volume 26, 1972, pp19-21, via Marxists Internet Archive.

30 Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007, pp46-47.

31 For part of this story, see Alexander Rabinowitch, The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd, Bloomington: Indian University Press, 2007.

32 Orlando Figes and Boris Kolonitskii, Interpreting the Russian Revolution: The Language and Symbols of 1917, New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1999, p120

33 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p56.

34 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Fall of the Old Regime, London: Macmillan, 1983, pp91-92, cited in Donny Gluckstein, The Western Soviets: Workers' Councils versus Parliament 1915-1920, London: Bookmarks, 1985, p24.

35 Donny Gluckstein, The Western Soviets: Workers' Councils versus Parliament 1915-1920, London: Bookmarks, 1985, p24.

36 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p78.

37 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p57.

38 Roxanne Easley, The Emancipation of the Serfs in Russia: Peace Arbitrators and the Development of Civil Society, Abingdon: Routledge, 2009, p61.

39 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p178.

40 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p62.

41 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1984, p298.

42 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1984, p299.

43 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1984, p299.

44 A brief account of the German and Italian experiences can be found in Donny Gluckstein, The Western Soviets: Workers' Councils versus Parliament 1915-1920, London: Bookmarks, 1985.

45 There's a large literature on this topic. Two anarchist classics are: Gaston Leval, Collectives in the Spanish Revolution, London: Freedom Press, 1975; and Sam Dolgoff ed, The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936-1939, New York: Free Life Editions, 1974.

46 There is an academic collection on Hungary: William Lomax ed, Hungarian Workers' Councils in 1956, Social Science Monographs, 1990. Andy Anderson's 1964 pamphlet on Hungary for Solidarity (London) was republished by AK Press in 2002: Hungary '56. One collection on Czechoslovakia's experience is Vladimir Fišera, Workers' Councils in Czechoslovakia: Documents and Essays 1968-69, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978. There is a short description of the Polish experience, with references, in Ian Clegg, Workers' Self-Management in Algeria, London: Allen Lane, 1971.

47 Ian Clegg, Workers' Self-Management in Algeria, London: Allen Lane, 1971.

48 See chapters in Immanuel Ness and Dario Azzellini, Ours to Master and to Own: Workers' Control from the Commune to the Present, Chicago: Haymarket, 2011.

49 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1984, pp406-407.

50 David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1984, pp307-308.

51 SA Smith, Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories 1917-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp227-228.

52 Lenin, What Is To Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement, published 1902, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 5, Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961, p375; via Marxists Internet Archive.

53 Lenin, 'The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution' [The April Theses], Pravda, 7 April 1917. Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1964, Moscow, Volume 24, pp. 19-26, via Marxists Internet Archive.

54 Lenin, 'Inevitable Catastrophe and Extravagant Promises', Pravda, nos 58 & 59, 16 & 17 May, 1917, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 24, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964, pp424-430, via Marxists Internet Archive.

55 Lenin, 'Speech Made at the First Petrograd Conference of Shop Committees', 31 May 1917, published in Pravda, no 72, 3 June 1917, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 24, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964, pp556-557, via Marxists Internet Archive.

56 Lenin, The State and Revolution: The Marxist Theory of the State and the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Revolution, written August – September 1917, published 1918, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 25, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964, pp457, 478, via Marxists Internet Archive.

57 Lenin, 'Can the Bolsheviks Retain State Power?', written 1 October 1917, published in Prosveshcheniye, 14 October 1917, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 26, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972, pp87-136, via Marxists Internet Archive.

58 Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, p16.

59 Lenin, 'Draft Decree on Workers' Control', written 26 or 27 October 1917, published in Pravda, 3 November 2017, Source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 26, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972, pp264-265, via Marxists Internet Archive.

60 Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, p16.

61 Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, pp22-23.

62 Isaac Deutscher, Soviet Trade Unions, London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1950, pp17-18. I've verified this quotation. It is cited in Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, p19. Deutscher's study is available online at the Marxists Internet Archive.

63 Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, pp26-27.

64 Lenin, The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government, April 1918, cited in Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, pp40-41. A slightly different translation can be found in Lenin Collected Works, vol 27, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974, pp268-269, also online at the Marxists Internet Archive.

65 Lenin, The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government, April 1918, cited in Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers' Control 1917 to 1921: The State and Counter-Revolution, Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1975, third edition, p41. A slightly different translation can be found in Lenin Collected Works, vol 27, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974, p269, also online at the Marxists Internet Archive.

66 Lenin, A Letter to a Comrade on Our Organisational Tasks, 1902, source: Lenin Collected Works, vol 6, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1964, pp231-252, via Marxists Internet Archive.

67 Israel Getzler, Kronstadt 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. pp213-214.

68 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p258.

69 SA Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis 1890-1928, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p260.

Milan Rai is the author of Chomsky's Politics and War Plan Iraq, among other books.

Topics: Russia